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Fire Sci. Eng. > Volume 31(5); 2017 > Article
Fire Science and Engineering 2017;31(5):53-62.
DOI:    Published online October 31, 2017.
변압기의 화재확산 방지를 위한 부싱 방화구조체 적용에 관한 연구
김도현, 조남욱, 윤충호, 박필용, 박근성
A Study on the Application of Bushings Fire Prevent Structure to Prevent Fire Spread of Transformer
Kim Do-Hyun, Cho Nam-Wook, Yoon Choung-Ho, Park Pil-Yong, Park Keun-Sung
1Korea Institute of Civil Engineering & Building Technology
2Korea Institute of Civil Engineering & Building Technology
3Korea Electric Power Corporation (ChungBuk District Division)
4Korea Electric Power Corporation (ChungBuk District Division)
5Korea Electric Power Corporation (ChungBuk District Division)
경제 및 산업의 원천 에너지원인 전력은 생산과 소비의 지역적 상이함으로 장거리 수송을 필수로 하며, 다중환상망(Multi-loop) 형식의 송배전계통으로 전력을 공급한다. 실질적 사용에 앞서, 변전소내 변압기를 통해 변전과정을 거쳐 각 사용처의 특성을 고려하여 전력공급이 이루어지고 있으며 변압기는 본체, 권선, 절연유, 부싱등의 구조로 결합되어 있다. 변전소에서 발생하는 변압기화재는 가구와 상업시설등에 전기공급을 중단시키고 각종 안전사고를 발생시키는 1차 손실뿐만 아니라 2차적으로 경제 손실을 야기한다. 화재의 원인은 부싱 하부파손에 따른 절연유 유출과 약 1초 이내 발화점에 도달하는 절연유에 의한 화재의 연쇄반응으로 파악된다. 화재피해의 최소화를 위해 연기감지기, 자동소화설비 등이 구축되어있으나 감지기의 동작 및 소화가스 방출지연 등으로 화재진화를 위한 골든타임 확보의 부재가 문제되고 있다. 이에 본 연구는 초기 화재진화에 따른 골든타임 확보의 중요성에 따라 화재확산을 방지하고 절연유 누출을 차단하는 능동적 메커니즘의 필요에 따라 수행되었다. 따라서 화염에 의해 팽창하는 고온형상 유지물질과 기계적 화염차단장치를 적용한 부싱방화구조체를 개발하였다. 실제 부싱 및 프렌지규격을 적용하여 제작된 변압기모형에 부싱방화구조체를 설치하여 실규모 화재실험을 수행하였다. 초기화염으로부터 3초내에 정확한 위치와 높이에 부싱방화구조체가 작동함을 확인하였으며 이는 실제 변압기화재 시 화염 확대를 효과적으로 차단할 수 있을 것으로 사료된다.
Electric power which is the energy source of economy and industries requires long distance transportation due to regional difference between its production and consumption, and it is supplied through the multi-loop transmission and distribution system. Prior to its actual use, electric power flows through several transformations by voltage transformers in substations depending on the characteristics of each usage, and a transformer has the structure consisting of the main body, winding wire, insulating oil and bushings. A transformer fire that breaks out in substations entails the primary damage that interrupts the power supply to houses and commercial facilities and causes various safety accidents as well as the secondary economic losses. It is considered that causes of such fire include the leak of insulating oil resulting from the destruction of bottom part of bushings, and the chain reaction of fire due to insulating oil that reaches its ignition point within 1 second. The smoke detector and automatic fire extinguishing system are established in order to minimize fire damage, but a difficulty in securing golden time for extinguishing fire due to delay in the operation of detector and release of gas from the extinguishing system has become a problem. Accordingly, this study was carried out according to needs of active mechanism to prevent the spread of fire and block the leak of insulating oil, in accordance with the importance of securing golden time in extinguishing a fire in its early stage. A bushings fireproof structure was developed by applying the high temperature shape retention materials, which are expanded by flame, and mechanical flame cutoff devices. The bushings fireproof structure was installed on the transformer model produced by applying the actual standards of bushings and flange, and the full scale fire test was carried out. It was confirmed that the bushings fireproof structure operated at accurate position and height within 3 seconds from the flame initiation. It is considered that it could block the spread of flame effectively in the event of actual transformer fire.
Key Words: Bushing, Insulating oil, Fire proof structure, Transformer, Fire damage

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