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Journal of Korean Institute of Fire Science and Engineering 2000;14(2):7-13.
Published online June 30, 2000.
Polyurethane foam의 유해가스 분석에 관한 연구
이창우김정환현성호
1경민대학 소방과학연구센터2경민대학 소방과학연구센터3경민대학 소방안전관리과
A Study on Noxious Gases Analysis of Polyurethane foams
요약
쿠션제조용; 마네킹 제조용 및 건축내장재용 폴리우레탄 봄의 열적특성을 조사하기 위하여 시차주사열량계(DSC, Differential Scanning Calorimeter) 및 열중량 분석기(TGA, Thermogravimetric Analysis)를 이용하여 온도에 따른 발열개시온도, 무게감량 등을 조사하였으며, 발화온도 측정방법 중 정온법을 이용하여 각 폴리우레탄 폼의 발화온도를 조사하였다. 이로부터 각 폴리우레탄 폼의 연소 조건에 따라 발생할 수 있는 유독성 가스를 가스분석기와 가스텍을 이용하여 조사하였다. 연구결과 시제품인 건축내장재용 폴리우레탄 폼의 분해개시온도가 다소 낮으며, 분해열이 매우 크게 나타났다. 발화온도는 $420^{circ}$였다. 연소 시험시 $420^{circ}$까지 무염연소의 형태를 가졌으며, $500^{circ}$에서 유임연소가 발생하였다. 연소형태에 관계없이 연소온도의 증가에 따라 일산화탄소, 이산화탄소의 농도는 증가하였고, 유염연소를 나타내는 $500^{circ}$에서 질소산화물이 10 ppm 이상 관찰되었다. 한편 유독성이 매우 강한 HCN의 경우 온도의 증가에 따라 크게 증가하였다.
Abstract
We had investigated thermal stability, Ignition temperature and fire gas for polyurethane foams used for manikin, cushion and interior finishing material. Decomposition of polyurethane foams with temperature was investigated using a DSC and the weight loss with temperature increase using a TGA in order to find the thermal hazard of polyurethane foams, and the ignition temperature of polyurethane foams according to species. We studied constant temperature among ignition temperature measuring methods. In addition, noxious gases for polyurethane foams according to combustion condition were analyzed using gas analyzer and GASTEC. As results, initial decomposition temperature of polyurethane foam used for interior finishing material was lower than those for manikin and cushion, and exothermic energy was higher. Ignition temperature of polyurethane foam of interior finishing material was $420^{circ}$. All of combustion forms at $427^{circ}$ and under were smoldering combustion, and it was combustion at $500^{circ}$. As furnace temperature was increased, concentration of noxious gases such as carbon oxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen cyanide was increased. And nitrogen oxide at combustion condition($500^{circ}$) was over 10 ppm.
Key Words: polyurethane foams, thermal hazard, ignition temperature, smoldering, noxious gases


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