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Journal of Korean Institute of Fire Science and Engineering 2005;19(3):13-19.
Published online September 30, 2005.
나트륨 염이 첨가된 미분무수의 액체 pool fire소화특성
박재만, 신창섭
1충북대학교 안전공학과2충북대학교 안전공학과
Extinguishing Characteristics of Liquid Pool Eire by Water Mist Containing Sodium Salt
Park Jae-Man , Shin Chang-Sub
요약
본 논문에서는 금속염 첨가제를 함유한 미분무수의 소화성능을 연구하고자 아세트산 나트륨을 함유한 단일 액적의 증발속도를 측정하였으며, small-scale 챔버내에서의 헵탄 pool fire에 대한 소화실험을 실시하여, 화염의 온도를 분석함으로써 첨가제에 의한 미분무수 소화특성을 분석하였다. 순수물과 수용액의 증발특성을 비교한 결과 핵비등 영역에서 온도가 높을수록 용해된 첨가제의 석출 및 표면장력의 변화 등 물리적 영향으로 순수물에 비해 수용액의 증발속도가 현저히 느리게 나타났다. 소화실험 결과, 저압에서는 물 액적이 화염의 플림을 뚫지 못하기 때문에 소화는 이루어지지 않았고 단순히 화염의 크기를 작아지게 하였다. 중압에서는 첨가제를 넣었을 경우 액적의 운동량 증가에 따른 물리적 소화효과와 첨가제의 화학적 소화효과가 상승작용을 하여 화염을 억제하였고, 고압에서는 미분무수 시스템의 주요 소화 메커니즘 이외에도 blowing효과에 의해서 화염이 소화되는 것을 관찰할 수 있었다.
Abstract
An experimental study is presented for extinguishing characteristics of liquid fuel fire by water mist containing sodium acetate trihydrate. To evaluate the extinguishing performance of water mist containing an additive, the evaporation characteristics of a water droplet on a heated surface was examined. The evaporation process was recorded by a charge-coupled-device camera. Also, small-scale extinguishing tests were conducted for n-heptane pool fire in ventilated space to measure flame temperature variation. The average evaporation rate of a water droplet containing an additive was lower than that of a pure water droplet at a given surface temperature due to the precipitation of salt in the liquid-film and change of surface tension. In case of using an additive, the flame temperature was lower than that of pure water at a given discharge pressure and it was because the momentum of a water droplet containing an additive was increased reducing flame size. And also dissociated metal atoms, sodium, were reacted as a scavenger of the major radical species OH^-,;H^+$ which were generated for combustion process. Moreover, at a high pressure of 4MPa, the fire was extinguished through blowing effect as well as primary extinguishing mechanisms.


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