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Journal of Korean Institute of Fire Science and Engineering 2009;23(5):24-31.
Published online October 31, 2009.
소나무, 굴참나무 낙엽의 연소 방출가스 분석 및 건강 위험성 평가
김동현, 김응식, 이명보
1국립산림과학원 산림방재연구과2호서대학교 보건안전공학과3국립산림과학원 산림방재연구과
Combustion Emission Gas Analysis and Health Hazard Assessment about P. densiflora and Q. variabilis Surface Fuel Beds
Kim Dong-Hyun, Kim Eung-Sik, Lee Myung-Bo
본 연구에서는 우리나라 주요 침엽수종인 소나무(Pinus densiflora)와 활엽수종인 굴참나무(Quercus variabilis)의 낙엽에 대해 FTIR(Fourier Transform Infrared) 분광계를 이용하여 배출 연소가스 종류 및 농도를 측정하였다. 실험결과 소나무와 굴참나무 낙엽에서 Carbon monoxide, Carbon dioxide, Acetic acid, Butyl acetate, Ethylene, Methane, Methanol, Nitrogen dioxide, Ammonia, Hydrogen Fluoride, Sulfur dioxide, Hydrogen bromide 등 13개 연소가스가 검출되었고 굴참나무 낙엽에서는 Nitrogen monoxide가 추가로 검출되었다. 방출된 연소가스의 전체 농도는 소나무 낙엽이 굴참나무 낙엽에 비해 4.5배 많이 검출되었다. 특히, 시간가중평균가스농도(Time-Weighted Average, TWA, ppm) 기준을 초과하는 연소가스는 Carbon monoxide, Carbon dioxide, Butyl acetate가 검출되었고 단시간노출기준(Short Term Exposure Limit, STEL, ppm) 기준을 초과하는 연소가스는 Carbon monoxide, Carbon dioxide로 소나무 및 굴참나무 모두에서 나타났다. 이에 산불에서의 낙엽의 지표화 연소시 전체 가스 방출량의 99% 이상을 차지하고 있는 Carbon monoxide, Carbon dioxide의 건강 위험성이 높은 것으로 나타났다.
Based on fallen leaves of major Korean conifer species 'Pinus densiflora' and major Korean broadleaved species 'Quercus variabilis', this study sought to identify combustion emission gas types and measure their concentration by means of FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) spectrometer. As a result, it was found that there were total 13 types of combustion gas detected from fallen leaves of Pinus densiflora and Quercus variabilis, such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, acetic acid, butyl acetate, ethylene, methane, methanol, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen fluoride, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen bromide. Notably, nitrogen monoxide was additionally detected from fallen leaves of Quercus variabilis. It was found that the overall concentration of combustion gas emitted from the fallen leaves of Pinus densiflora was 4.5 times higher than that from fallen leaves of Quercus variabilis. Particularly, it was found that emission concentration of some combustion emission gas types like carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and butyl acetate exceeded the upper limit of their time-weighted average (TWA, ppm), while the emission concentration of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide exceeded their short-term exposure limit (STEL, ppm) for both species. Thus, it was found that carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide have higher hazard to health than other gas types, because these two gas types account for higher than 99% of overall gas emission due to combustion of surface fire starting from litter layer in forest.
Key Words: Forest fire, Surface fuel beds, Combustion gas, Health hazard
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