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Journal of Korean Institute of Fire Science and Engineering 2009;23(6):10-15.
Published online December 31, 2009.
소나무 낙엽층 화염높이 산정식에 관한 연구
국립산림과학원 산림방재연구과
Study on Flame Height Equation for the Pinus densiflora Surface Fuel Bed
Kim Dong-Hyun
산불에서의 화염높이 산정은 복사열전달에 의한 수평 또는 수직적 화염확산을 예측하는데 있어 매우 중요한 부분이다. 화염특성 중 화염높이는 빛을 수반하는 화염(the luminous flame)의 평균높이로 확인할 수 있다. 본 연구에서는 외부 풍속과 경사 등으로 인한 화염 높이가 변화될 수 있는 조건을 제외한 산림내 지표연소물질(surface fuel)인 소나무 낙엽층(fuel bed)에 대한 화염높이 관측실험과 열량분석계을 이용하여 발열량(Heat Release Rate) 측정실험과 수치해석을 통해 지표연소물질에 대한 화염높이 산출식 $H_f=0.027(dot{Q'})^{2/3}$을 도출하였다. 실험값과 개발 산정식, 기존 Heskestad 식과의 적용값 비교 결과, 소나무 낙엽의 경우, 실험값과 개발 산정식 적용값의 표준오차는 0.08, 실험값과 기존 Heskestad 식의 표준오차는 0.23으로 개발 산정식의 정확성이 높은 것으로 나타났다.
Flame height calculation in a forest fire is a crucial part of predicting horizontal or vertical flame spread flared by radiation heat transfer. Flame height, which is one of the flame characteristics, can be estimated by the average height of luminous flame. This research relied on flame height observation test on P. densiflora surface fuel bed, which are surface combustibles in a forest, and calorimeter to measure Heat Release Rate, thus produced $H_f=0.027(dot{Q'})^{2/3}$, flame height calculation equation for surface fuel. The research did not take into consideration such conditions as external velocity, slope and other variables that could affect flame height. According to comparison among experiment results, calculation results of the above formula and those of existing Heskestad formula (1998), it was found that standard error in fallen pine needles between experimental results and calculation results of the above formula amounts to 0.08, whereas standard error in same plant between experimental results and calculation results of existing Heskestad formula amounts to 0.23.
Key Words: Forest fire, Surface fire, Flame height, Pinus densiflora, Surface fuel bed
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